Inxuba Yethemba Municipality was established in terms of Municipal structures Act 116 of 1998 and the System Act 32 of 2000, through the merger of former Cradock TLC and Middleburg TLC in 2000.

The Cradock area consists of suburb of Cradock, Lingelihle, Michausdal, Hillside communities, whilst Middleburg area has the suburb of Middleburg with Kwa-Nonzame, Lusaka and Midros communities. The rural areas of both towns are mostly commercial farms, with small settlements in rural areas of Fish River, Mortimer and Rosmead.

Inxuba Yethemba Municipality is situated in the west of Chris Hani District Municipality, which is in the nestled heart of Eastern Cape Province. The N10 National Road which is vital economic link between Port Elizabeth and the North runs through Cradock and skirts Middleburg. The economy of the area is largely based on agriculture and tourism with small and medium enterprises, formal sector like government departments, finance and commercial institutions.

The Inxuba Yethemba Municipal Council is the ultimate political decision-making body of the municipality. Ward councillors are the major link between the municipal government and the residents. The Executive Mayor of Inxuba Yethemba takes overall strategic and political responsibility for the municipality, while the Municipal Manager Heads the Municipality's administration. The Heads of departments and officials are responsible for physically implementing of policies.